Bonding Agents, Adhesives & Etchants
Bonding Agents, Adhesives & Etchants CATEGORY DESCRIPTION
Dental bonding agents have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (fourth- and fifth-generation) to sixth- and seventh-generation self-etch systems. With the acid, primer and bond (resin) combined in a single bottle, seventh-generation adhesive systems require only a single step, with no separate etching, rinsing or mixing. These agents come in light- and dual-cure formulations, and produce a bond strength of 20-30 MPa to enamel.
Adhesives for bonding composite resins to dentin and enamel are categorized as total-, self- or selective-etch, and usually contain resin monomers, curing initiators, inhibitors or stabilizers and solvents. They are formulated to withstand mechanical forces (especially shrinkage stress from the lining composite) and prevent leakage along the margins via adherence to enamel and dentin, and binding of the lining composite.
Etchants remove the post-preparation smear layer on teeth while opening dentinal tubules and demineralizing sufficient dentin to enable formation of resin tags within dentin structure. When combined with dentin adhesives, this process produces bond strengths adequate for placing/retaining restorations.
Total etching employs 30% to 40% phosphoric acid gel, producing high bond strengths without interfering with dual-cure resin product polymerization. Formulated with 10% maleic acid or acidic monomers, self-etching systems virtually eliminate the postoperative sensitivity seen with over-etching or over-drying of the dentin.
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